By Katie Schmitz Eulitt, Director of Stakeholder Engagement, Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB)
A recent ACCA report discussed how differing definitions of materiality affect the boundaries of materiality decisions made by companies. In light of this report, we wanted to offer SASB’s perspective on natural capital and materiality in the context of mandatory disclosure to the Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC).
SASB develops sustainability accounting standards for publicly-listed U.S. companies. The standards are designed for the disclosure of material sustainability issues in SEC filings. By the end of 2014, SASB will have issued standards for 45 industries. By early 2016, SASB standards for more than 80 industries in ten sectors will be available.
While FASB and US GAAP exist for the purpose of disclosing corporate performance through metrics focused on financial capital, SASB’s concern is with accounting for material non-financial issues, including environmental and social capitals that are not accurately priced. SASB is defining parameters that express a true and fair representation of performance on non-financial issues, for investors and analysts to use in evaluating companies. This picture includes attention to the management of critical capitals, vulnerability to depletion, and risks associated with mismanagement. SASB’s approach to sustainability accounting consists of determining standard disclosure and metrics to account for companies’ performance on material sustainability issues.
So, how will SASB standards change corporate performance? By helping companies to account for all forms of capital. Accounting for sustainability impacts means measuring, verifying, and reporting—in other words, being accountable for—the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance of an organization. Sustainability accounting standards are intended to complement financial accounting standards. The goal is for investors to be able to evaluate financial fundamentals and sustainability fundamentals side by side. With this information, investors can assess ESG risks and opportunities in an investment portfolio, and companies can improve performance on the ESG issues most relevant to their business success.
The impacts of business on society and the environment, as well as the impact of sustainability issues on business, are often headline news. The perfect storm of global population density, food and water security issues, and extreme weather events is not predicted to subside. Thus, companies need to better understand how these factors inhibit and/or enhance their ability to create value, for shareholders and society alike. SASB’s industry-specific guidelines help companies identify the ESG issues that are likely to be material to their business, and provide investors with the ability to compare company performance on these issues. SASB is using a rigorous method to develop standards that are tailored to each industry. By identifying the minimum set of material issues for every industry, SASB standards surface the information that truly matters. SASB standards are designed to be cost-effective for companies and decision-useful for investors.
Our standards abide by the U.S. Supreme Court’s definition of material information, defined as presenting “a substantial likelihood that the disclosure of the omitted fact would have been viewed by the reasonable investor as having significantly altered the “total mix” of information made available.” Regulation S-K requires corporations to disclose material information to investors in the Form 10-K. While FASB provides standards for the disclosure of material financial information, there are no standards for the disclosure of material non-financial information. SASB is emerging to fill this need.
We encourage everyone interested in materiality, natural capital, and the U.S. capital markets to participate in SASB’s standards development process. Sign up for industry working groups, participate in public comment periods, download and use our standards.